Ranch Management Update

Update: In 2020, most of my Star cattle were sold to Richard Luciano who is a PCC (Pharo Cattle Company; https://pharocattle.com/) cooperator breeder and whose ranch locations are in the Texas hill country. For many years, I have shared the breeding philosophy of PCC which is to work with Nature in developing adaptable cattle that produce more pounds of beef per acre. In addition, PCC has set the goal of spreading heat tolerant genetics throughout the Gulf Coast region (and beyond). One reason for selling most of the herd is to allow the progressive team work effort and resources of PCC to expand the Star cattle numbers. To date, Richard has had semen collected at Elgin Breeding Service on some of my top bulls which is now available to ranchers. He has also collected embryos from two of my top proven cows, which has taken place at Windmill Ranch in Cameron, Texas. Richard has purebred and crossbred Star bull and heifer replacements for sale.

The Star herd is presently in the process of being upgraded to further reduce body frame size and promote more body width and depth in order to conform the body type to PCC standards, while not sacrificing their well-recognized high level of heat tolerance, parasite resistance, and high cow fertility, efficiency and longevity. One objective is to sell Star bulls at future PCC bull sales. I continue to work closely with the PCC program to now make Star cattle more widely available to ranchers in the beef industry. 

Lastly, below is Richard’s contact information:

Richard Luciano
R2R Ranch
551 John Knox Rd
Fischer, Texas 78623-0210

LR Kikame – Semen is now available.

LR Kikame

Center: LR Dusty and LR Kathy – Two cows used in the embryo transfer program. LR Dusty is now 14 and LR Kathy is 13 years old.


A group of embryo transfer calves.


August 7, 2021: Breeding Season – Star bull line-up: These photos feature Star bulls being used in the 2021 Breeding season:

LR Blondie

Bull 50Bull 10

LR Korak

June 15, 2021. The following photo shows to the right a 16 year-old Star cow (LR Chi). She has raised 15 calves (photo courtesy of Paul McHorse, Flatonia, TX). Her dam produced until she was 14 and a half-sister is still producing at 17 years of age.

May 8, 2021. It is calving time! Despite the rare blizzard and drought conditions over the winter, cows are in great body condition (mostly BCS of 7). It is good to work with Nature and calve later into spring. Below is a photo of a 60 pound heifer calf. Her breed composition is 41.4% Red Angus, 26.6% Senepol, and 31.3% Tuli. Also shown is a pictorial pedigree of her sire, LR Blondie.

March 12, 2021. Wintered calves have by now been naturally weaned by their dams. I moved the heifers to another location this week. The cows are at my ranch. I have not heard any bawling. Despite the recent rare blizzard and not providing any fed feeds, the lowest BCS is 5.5 for my Star cows. Now there is green-up in pastures. All cows will be at a minimum BCS of 6 by calving, which is still 6 to 8 weeks away. It is great working with Nature! The photo below was taken today. The bottom photos is of some of the weaned heifers.

February 28, 2021. After a record-breaking blizzard, I thought I would report on how my slick-coated cattle fared this event. Before the storm, my cattle all had a minimum BCS of 6, so they had a nice layer of fat below their hides. When the storm finally hit, they nestled down close together in the tall, stockpiled dry grass, underneath a grove of mesquite trees.  During the day, they would come up and I would check on them. During several days of temps in the teens and low 20’s, I never saw them shiver or show any signs of cold stress. They grazed contentedly during the day even while encountering strong winds. (I do not feed hay are provide any fed feeds.) Lastly, I see no signs of a drop in BCS. Some cows are even wintering calves that are now 10 months old. Several of my Star cattle clients have relayed to me similar observations.

After blizzard

January 10, 2021. As is evident at this website – in order to allow Nature to work for me (and not me working against Nature) – I follow a spring calving management program. This program is also described in detail in several articles that appear at the Articles & Presentations page. I have prepared a spreadsheet that shows the  following seasonal schedule of activities (click on image to enlarge). Send me an email (slukefahr@gmail.com) if you would like to receive a copy. According to this schedule, I am presently enjoying my winter vacation!

November 26, 2020. This is the end of another cycle as most calves have been weaned and sold with the majority sold as breeding stock. Replacements are being wintered on their dams until early March. One unfair advantage of being located in south Texas is that there is still green forage available. Cows are now recouping their body condition. The aim is for cows to have a BCS of at least 6 by winter. This will allow them to coast through winter without being given fed feeds even while pregnant and for some with a calf at their side. Attached are photos on the previous day.

September 29, 2020. With lingering summer temps and recent rains, this region is still inundated with flies. Below are two photos. The light-colored Star cow has few flies. For generations, Star cattle have been selected for fly resistance and summer fertility. The black cattle are literal magnets for flies, which can sense their higher body temps. Irritation by flies decreases performance such as inability to maintain body condition, slower gains and lower fertility. Of course, other factors exist besides coat color, such as slick hides and sweating ability. It is also a real challenge to breed black cattle in the summer so that they ideally calve in May. Black bulls and cows are well known to be less fertile in the summer. To breed them at different times of the year involves lower performance (e.g., heifers raising calves during the winter) and requires higher production costs such as fed feeds. Even though black feeder calves at local sale barns bring a small premium, it is simply not compensated by the extra production costs.

July 5, 2020. This time of year I report on the pregnancy success of my Star herd. The result of breeding during the sweltering summer period of mid-July through August of 2019 was – of total cows exposed – 90% conceived during their 1st or 2nd heat cycle. The vast majority of cows calved between late April and May. This result involved several groups of cows, one of which was exposed to a purebred Mashona bull. In addition, the average feed cost per cow last year was $1.64. No hay was fed. Cubes were given only as a reward when working or moving cattle a few times during the year. Below are a few cow-calf photos.

May 17, 2020. Star Cattle on the Move! In the past couple of weeks, I have received emails with photos from several proud owners of Star cattle. They are developing herds of adaptable, “tough as nails” cattle. Please allow me to share these with you:

March 8, 2020 – My Old Girls. One trait that is often discussed among progressive ranchers is cow longevity. This trait is the test of time which identifies cows that are truly genetically adaptable and shine without any problems. I will highlight some of my oldest cows in the following photos. Bear in mind that all Star cows must raise a good calf every year since two years of age. The oldest cow is LR Beth who was born in 2003. To date, she has produced a total of 7,910 lbs in weaned calves, nearly 2 tons, on milk and grass. Her dam, a purebred Senepol, produced until she was 14 years-old. LR Beth is also the dam of LR Dusty.

January 19, 2010. A belated Happy New Year! Being the start of a new decade makes me think about the genetic progress that has been achieved in my herd in the past 10 years. Below is a figure called a cumulative relative frequency polygon. In my graduate Statistics course, I teach my students how to prepare such frequency figures to examine the distribution or spread of values for economic traits. This polygon involves the birth weight (BW) EPDs for all Star calves born in 2009 and 2019. Here are a few points to describe the figure:

* In 2009 the lowest EPD is -2.398 and in 2019 is -4.219, whereas the highest values are 3.572 and 1.333, respectively. Interestingly, in 2009 and 2019, 63.2% and 8.3% of values were positive. This was the most dramatic change. There was also a reduction in variation by ~15% of EPD values in 2019 compared to the variation among values in 2009.
* The Cross in the middle marks the 50% frequency value (middlemost value) from the Y-axis. In 2009 and 2019, the medians for EPDs are 0.3325 and -1.234, respectively.  So the absolute difference of 1.566 reflects the progress made, on average, in reducing BW EPDs over 10 years.
* For 2019, 100% of calves had EPDs represented by EPD Class 1.00. Whereas for 2009, 100% of calves was eventually represented at EPD Class 4.

December 24, 2019. As the year closes, the following economic results for 2019 can be shared. First, the USDA – Livestock Marketing Information Center projected for 2019 that total costs per cow would exceed $850 with a loss in average calf returns of $14. At Lukefahr Ranch for 2019, the total direct and overhead costs was $313 per cow. Average feed costs per cow broke an all-time low at $1.64 (only to call cows with cubes) while depreciation costs per cow was only $18.47. Lease costs was the greatest expense at $116 per cow. Input costs were kept down by avoiding unnecessary expenses. Based on local market prices for good 5-weight steers, profits per cow and per acre were calculated at $282 and $39 (although the majority of calves were actually sold at higher prices as breeding stock). In addition, 58 pounds of beef per acre was yielded based on total weights in weaned calves and total acreage. This beef yield per acre figure reflected an overall stocking rate of 7.31 acres per cow, cow pregnancy and calf survival rates of 97.7 and 100%, and an average weaning weight of 512 pounds (205-day and age of dam adjusted, and adjusted to a steer basis for purposes of comparisons across years). Interestingly, in recent years the average weaning weights have been declining, which is due in part to the selection emphasis on lighter birth weights. However, this trend should correlate to even lighter mature cow weights, which should improve cow efficiency and profits and beef yield per acre.

October 26, 2019. South Texas is well into the fall now. At 6:10 this morning the temperature was 45 degrees. Fortunately, nearly 3 inches of rain was received three weeks ago while temperatures were still in the 90’s. (It had been very dry some time prior to these rains.) This was an opportunity to grow and stockpile forage in the majority of pastures where there was no grazing activity. The cattle’s body condition responded to the flush of green forage (see photo below). In fact, despite a minor bout of army worms, there should be forage available for grazing through the winter season without the need of feeding hay or energy or protein supplements. The winter plan also includes wintering replacement calves on their pregnant dams. In addition, and unless a hard freeze occurs, it is possible in south Texas to develop 1-1/2 year-old bred heifers on only forage without fed feeds. I believe this is possible because fetuses were programmed via switching on genes for improved digestion of low quality forage. The second photo taken last winter shows one such heifer developed on only milk and grass. Last year, the heifer pregnancy rate was 100%. (Conception occurred during July and August.) After several generations of breeding Star cattle, it is evident that they have become well adapted to the south Texas environment.

August 16, 2019. The following is a Genetics lesson of the day. Below are photo pedigrees of two bull calves. They are both but fully crossbred and closely related. How is that possible? First, they have the same sire (Tarzan-Mashona), MGS (PCC R2R Simon-Red Angus), and GMGS (Honey Bear-Tuli). Also, their great-grand dams (LR Roane and LR Sherry) were full-siblings, being from the same Red Angus sire and Senepol dam. They have the same breed composition of 50% Mashona, 31.25% Red Angus, 6.25% Senepol, and 12.5% Tuli and their level of combined tropical genetics is 68.75%. In terms of simply-inherited traits, while both calves are dark red and polled, bull calf #10 tends to be more hairy like his dam while bull calf #15 is more smooth-coated like his sire. These bull calves are amazingly uniform. Their computed coefficient of relationship is 33.6% while their coefficient of inbreeding is 0%. On average one out of every three genes are the same between these two calves. The relationship level is between that of half- (25%) and full-siblings (50%). In addition to the uniformity, if used as sires in the same herd, both sets of calves should as well be much more uniform than two bulls of the same breed-type but of different ancestry.

July 30, 2019. A set of heifer twins was born this calving season. The sire is Tarzan (Mashona) and the dam is a Star cow.

June 26, 2019. By mid-July it will be the beginning of the 45-day breeding season so that calves will be born mostly in May. This year, several daughters sired by my Mashona bull (Tarzan – a dark red and smooth-coated bull) and out of Star cows will be exposed to a young Star bull. The bull and heifers will be between 14 and 15 months  of age. Below is a photo of Tarzan, his son (LR Korak), and some of his F1 daughters.

February 10, 2019. It is an early spring here in south Texas. There is spring grass, the acacia brush is blooming (a natural sign of spring), and the local weatherman forecasts no more freezing temps for the rest of winter. I could see the signs even in later winter when I observed my cattle to begin gaining some flesh in late January on green winter forbs and early spring grass. In this update I wish to discuss my breeding heifer development program in reference to my latest set of heifers that have only consumed milk and forage and that will calving in May.

First, when they were only fetuses in winter of 2017 their dams were grazing mostly on stockpiled Kleberg bluestem (aka King Ranch bluestem; KRB) without receiving any hay, energy or protein supplements. (KRB is cursed by local ranchers for its poor palatability and digestibility when mature.) I contend that at this time the dams communicated signs to their fetuses. Through this process of fetal programming, genes were switched on for consuming and digesting low quality forage. (A growing body of scientific research confirms this belief.) Actually, the Star herd has been managed this way for several generations now (nearly 15 year) so breeding cattle should already be directly transmitting these genes. Notwithstanding this, Star cattle already possess many critical genes of African origin for thriving in harsh environments for about 5,000 years.

Later, these heifers were wintered on their dams. During this prolonged preweaning period, dams continued to teach their calves critical grazing behaviors. For example, being broad rather than selective grazers, reaching gut-fill on lower quality, less palatable species (it helps that Star cattle are deep-gutted), and grazing medic species when lightly infested with worms. This is in addition to learning other important behaviors such as respecting fences, participating in herd aggressive responses to predators (along with a guard donkey), and being called and gently rotated to other pastures. Of relevance, last November a young bull and five heifers were sold to a rancher in Oklahoma. He was amazed that shortly after their arrival he observed: “When I turned them out the heifers started eating the tops and seed heads of little bluestem, which most cattle don’t eat much”.

At 10 months of age the heifers were separated from their dam in early March when there was spring grass. They were by now trained and developed. Four months later from mid-July through August they were exposed to a young Star bull with the objective of calving at 24 months of age. In most years after the breeding season is over, heifers then rejoin the cow herd.

After a brief freeze in October, some green grass and winter clover and forbs was available as forage for the winter. Both the range condition of pastures and body condition of heifers were closely monitored. The heifers maintained good body condition while grazing mostly stockpiled forage throughout late fall and early winter, and without energy or protein supplements. Now they are programming their own fetuses to thrive on a lifetime of a low quality forage diet.

The feed cost has been zero in developing these heifers who have consumed only milk and grass. A source of minerals is always provided to my cattle. Again, it is an early spring this year. These heifers still have three more months to go before calving. It would be easy to worry about that – because of their genes for getting fat on only grass – they might be too fat by calving time in May! Here are a few recent photos.

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December 31, 2018. As the year closes the following is a summary of performance and profitability results of the Star cattle herd. Pregnancy and weaning rates were 95.1 and 97.2%. Total costs per cow averaged $331 with land lease costs being the largest expenditure at $100 per cow. Total feed costs averaged only $10 per cow (excluding minerals). Average 205-day adjusted weaning  weight was 556 pounds. Ultimately, these figures relate to a yield of 64 pounds of beef per acre. Profit per cow was $449 and profit per acre was $58. These profit figures are conservatively based on local market prices at an average of $780 per calf (most calves were actually sold for higher prices as breeding animals). In addition, these performance and profitability results were achieved by the use of genetically-adapted, moderately-sized (approx. average weight of 1,100 pounds), and highly fertile cows on healthy pastures. In 2018, the stocking rate was 7.75 acres per animal unit. This stocking rate was also pivotal in improving land efficiency in terms of pounds of beef produced per acre. Below is a figure that shows how stocking rate (number of acres per cow) has improved since 2014 at a rate of about 2 fewer acres per animal unit per year (through improved carrying capacity of pastures and likely smaller cows). Pounds of beef produced per acre has also improved at a rate of an increase of 6.7 pounds per year.

December 9, 2018. Nearly all of the calves presold a few months ago have been picked up. Half of the breeding calves purchased were from repeat clients who continue to upgrade their herds to a purebred Star base. Some of these repeat clients purchased bull calves that were Mashona-sired – to boost the performance level in their herds due to African genetics for fertility and adaptability and added heterosis. The photo below shows a trailer that was loaded with 2 bulls and 5 heifers destined for Oklahoma. Two ranchers: Kim Barker and Evan Rowland, previously total strangers, made the long trip together. Overall, it was good to see old friends again and to make new ones. Some brought their spouses and children along to see Star cattle in south Texas. Cattle ranchers are indeed the salt of the earth!

Oct 15, 2018. As mentioned throughout this website, last year I purchased a purebred Mashona bull (Tarzan). He was used for several years in the Pharo Cattle Company breeding program. I have been very pleased by his ability to maintain good body condition (“mud fat”) and settle all cows that he has been exposed to thus far. The breeding objective of Lukefahr Ranch is to maintain a herd of polled, slick and light-colored STAR cattle of appropriate tropical genetics for the region where selection is applied to promote high fertility and survival in a low input system while working closely with Nature. While a great bull, Tarzan does have a few issues. He is dark red and horned, and he attracts a lot of flies (likely due to his high testosterone level and darker coat color). Fortunately, several of his sons out of Star cows are polled, slick-coated, and light-colored. Below is a photo of Tarzan and one of his sons as a yearling breeding bull. The dam of this bull calf is Tuli-sired (Honey Bear), and her dam was Red Angus-sired (Leachman’s Bandito Tres), and her dam was Senepol-sired (Nocona). Besides having a great pedigree, his projected level of tropical genetics is 84.4%. As a composite-bred animal he should express a very high level of heterosis.
June 17, 2018. The Spring 2018 Genetic Evaluation was recently conducted based on the addition of calf birth weight records to the data base which goes back to 1999 and now consists of records on 749 animals with trait and(or) pedigree records. The average birth weight for 2018 is 72.1 pounds. Below is a figure that shows the genetic trend for birth weight since 2005 (which was the year that the first crop of three-breed composite Star calves were born) in response to the breeding objective to select for lighter birth weights. Before 2005, the average birth weights were well above 80 pounds. In the figure each data point is the calculated average EPD for all calves born that year. The fitted line shows that, on average, the average EPD decreased about 0.175 pounds each year or approximately one pound every six years. While genetic progress is both cumulative and permanent, it takes time and patience.
Since the Star population is an open herd, several purebred AI bulls (Red Angus, Senepol, and Tuli) with negative birth weight EPDs have been used to decrease average birth weights. Photos of the most influential bulls are shown at the bottom of the figure with their birth weight EPDs. On the right side of the figure are photos of several of the most influential Star bulls that were born on Lukefahr Ranch that tend to have even larger negative EPDs for birth weight than most of the purebred AI bulls. Even though each of these Star bulls are related to two or more of the featured AI bulls, through gene recombination it is possible to produce composite-bred calves that inherit genes from AI bulls for all three breeds that will produce even lighter calves at birth. Other unrelated AI bulls have also been used, for example Above and Beyond and Schuler Rebel (Red Angus bulls) and WC 950K (a Senepol bull) to further reduce birth weights, while expanding the gene pool to minimize inbreeding but optimize hybrid vigor. Selection for the slick gene from Senepol and genes for light color, among other traits related to heat tolerance, has also occurred. This figure may serve as the basis for a future article. Stay posted.
January 20, 2018. Some readers my find the set of graphs particularly interesting, which were updated after closing the books on 2017. The first one involves trend for total costs per cow, which have dramatically decreased through better grazing management and by utilizing more adaptable genetics. The second graph shows stocking rate (SR) trend over the past 17 years. Hay has not been fed for over 16 years. The graph speaks volumes about drought management and management in general. First, between 2001 and 2004, the ranch was transitioning between traditional overstocking and continuous grazing towards an implemented rotational grazing system. The initial key decision was made in 2001 to reduce SR (more acres per cow). Because of the adverse effects of past poor grazing management, a few years were required for pasture health to recover. After 2004, pastures were in better condition (quality and quantity) so SR was increased (fewer acres per cow). Then starting in 2009 were years of extreme to exceptional drought. In 2013, SR was reduced (i.e., more acres per cow) to be more conservative on forage resources – mostly achieved by moving cows to temporary leases and selling 20% of the cow herd (mostly older cows and cows that made too much milk). In late 2014 and throughout 2015, ample rains returned and pastures gradually began to recover. In response, in 2015 the SR was increased from 16.0 to 12.2 acres per cow and in 2017 stood at 9.1 acres per cow. What is perhaps most interesting over these years is that as SR has been reduced (more acres per cow) the pounds of beef in weaned calves and profit per acre (last two graphs) have both generally increased in more recent years following a drought management plan and having adaptable cattle which continue to improve in performance.
June 29, 2017. Star bulls at 13 months of age were fertility tested by a local veterinarian. (This veterinarian has previously purchased two Star bulls which are now his main herd sires.) The bulls who have been developed only on milk and grass easily passed the Breeding Soundness Examination. In mid-July they will be turned out with heifers and cows. Several AI and natural service sires will  be used this year. One of the bulls that was fertility tested is shown in the photo below. His breed composition is 43.8% Red Angus, 18.8% Senepol, and 37.5% Tuli. His paternal grand sire is PCC R2R Simon (Red Angus) and his maternal grand sire is Honey Bear (Tuli). He is also homozygous (2 copies) for the slick gene which he inherited from his Senepol ancestors. Needless to say, as a composite his performance will be boosted by considerable hybrid vigor.
May 31, 2017. All cows except one calved between April 18 and May 28. Pregnancy rates for cows and heifers were 97.0 and 100%. The 45-day breeding season was between mid-July through August of last year. Average birth weight for all calves born was 69.6 pounds. No heifers had to be assisted at calving. Heifers were wintered on their dams until 10 months of age and were bred 4 to 5 months later. For years, Star cattle only graze forage without being fed hay or given energy or protein supplements. Below is a photo a 14 year-old Star cow who has produced 13 calves (left), a Star cow in her prime (middle), and a 2 year-old Star heifer with her first calf (right).
RANCH MANAGEMENT at Lukefahr Ranch reflects the paradigm of ‘Working with Nature’ as illustrated in the following figure. Calves are born mostly in May (see figure below). The green line depicts forage quality whereas the red line represents cow’s nutritional requirements. Working closely with Nature allows cows to gain flesh condition prior to calving from the spring flush of green grass. Especially for heifers, this will ensure high herd fertility or breed-back.

work-with-natureHowever, this schedule requires that bulls and cows breed in late summer. This is a challenge for cattle producers in south Texas. This challenge is overcome by use of heat tolerant breeds: Senepol and Tuli. Semen evaluation tests in late June and early July have confirmed high fertility levels in bulls (most bulls tested to date have had over 90% live sperm counts in collections of semen that is highly sperm concentrated). Below is a chart that depicts well the tropical-like conditions during a rather typical breeding season (mid-July through August) in 2014. On most days, temperatures were above 100 F and humidity levels were mostly between 90 and 100%, while wind speed tended to be steady over the breeding season in terms of maximum 10 second wind gusts.

 Weather 2014In addition, in the summer season most bulls in the region are sub-fertile, even temporarily sterile (especially if they have black-colored hides). In addition, calves are usually weaned in fall (by the fence-line method) after rains cause the next major flush of green grass for the year.However, in recent years calves have been wintered on their dams and weaned in early spring (early March) – about 2 months before calving. Cows then have about a two month window to obtain a minimum BCS of 6 by calving time. The strategy has so far paid off without the need for dietary energy or protein supplements during winter.

In the above photo, a 4 year-old bull (1/2 Senepol, 1/4 Tuli, and 1/4 Red Angus) serviced four cows in the afternoon on 28 July, 2011, when it was 100 degrees F. Notice too the early interest or libido of seven bull calves! Also notice the good cow body condition of the two cows. Although it was a severe drought year, cows were not being supplemented but were consuming only stockpiled forage.

Drought focusThe above model was developed by Steven Lukefahr after nearly 20 years of experience in aligning cattle genetics with natural cycles through drought management. The model displays the focus on drought management and appropriate genetics in working with natural cycles in south Texas. While the model is self-explanatory, it emphasizes that drought management and genetics is critical for production success in the region. The unique model has been described in detail in articles and in presentations delivered by Lukefahr to beef cattle producers at clinics and other educational events. It is highly ironic that the same model is strikingly similar to one reflected by Nature over the millennia involving wildlife species such as bison and deer. To quote Mr. Tom Lasater: ” Nature is smarter than all of us”! To illustrate, the photo below is of my neighbor’s bison herd which is never supplemented or pampered or given dewormers or vaccines. They winter their calves and later wean them in the early spring about 2 months before they calve again, which they typically do annually for some 20 or more years. Calves only weigh between about 40 and 50 pounds at birth. In addition, cows are very protective of their calves.This is the epitome of easy-care livestock. However, one negative is that they are difficult and dangerous to work in pens. The photo was taken by horseback by Steven Lukefahr, prior to being run out of the pasture by the old cow who is the matriarchal leader!

bison6 The figure below presents an overview of my basic ranch management program and below this figure is a table that compares traditional to alternative management practices with the latter being adopted at Lukefahr Ranch.


Guard donkeys – Below is a photo of the spring  guardian of young calves in the herd. “Jenny” is shown below with her new foal born on March 12, 2010. Allowing a donkey to foal every few years further stimulates strong maternal behaviors. Jenny often stands guard over cows as they calve, serves as babysitter while cows go off to graze, but especially becomes very active in chasing coyotes and dogs out of pastures! Jenny is not treated as a pet but is managed as any cow in the herd. In 2013 and 2014, her daughter, Jezebel, following two years of training by her dam, is now the guardian of a separate cow herd (middle photo). In April 2017 another jenny was purchased as shown in the right photo. “Molly” is the guardian of another cow herd. Here is a link of an article that appeared in The Cattleman magazine: Guard donkeys.

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